But that imbalance can build resentment. In France, the secretary of the Academie Française called last December for a “reconquest of the French language” from loanwords; in China, government-friendly papers printed screeds this spring against “Wi-Fi,” “VIP,” and “e-mail.” Even as many governments work to protect languages from the spread of English, however, speakers in those countries go blithely off to “hot jooga,” meaning that official policy and the daily reality of English may be very different things.
Lanthanum-transition-metal perovskites with robust meso-scale porous frameworks (meso-LaMO3) are synthesized through the use of ionic liquids. The resultant samples demonstrate a rather high activity for CO oxidation, by taking advantage of unique nanostructure-derived benefits. This synthesis strategy opens up a new opportunity for preparing functional mesoporous complex oxides of various compositions.
Ling began his career as a functionary in regional branches of the Communist Youth League in his native Shanxi Province. His Youth League involvement propelled him to the national-level organization in 1979. At the Youth League Ling worked in its propaganda department and edited its flagship newspaper. Closely following the footsteps of his patron Hu Jintao, Ling was promoted to a leadership position in the General Office of the Communist Party of China in 1999, and became an important member of the State Commission for Public Sector Reform.
In December 2014, Ling was placed under investigation by the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection (party's anti-graft agency) and removed from office.[2] He was expelled from the Communist Party and tried on charges of corruption, illegal possession of state secrets, and abuse of power, and was sentenced to life imprisonment in July 2016.[3]
But that imbalance can build resentment. In France, the secretary of the Academie Française called last December for a “reconquest of the French language” from loanwords; in China, government-friendly papers printed screeds this spring against “Wi-Fi,” “VIP,” and “e-mail.” Even as many governments work to protect languages from the spread of English, however, speakers in those countries go blithely off to “hot jooga,” meaning that official policy and the daily reality of English may be very different things.

When languages are full of borrowed words, it’s often not by choice. Romany has many loans because of a history of extreme marginalization. Japan has a long tradition of cultural borrowing; it was also occupied for years after World War II. Vietnam, following centuries of successive occupations, has a high rate of Chinese and French loans presaging more recent English ones like “canguru,” according to the Max Planck research. Other languages are more deliberately open: According to research by Anne-Line Graedler, an English professor at Norway’s Hedmark University College, the Danes are the most welcoming Scandinavian country to loans.


Fully-ordered face-centered tetragonal (fct) FePt nanoparticles (NPs) are synthesized by thermal annealing of the MgO-coated dumbbell-like FePt-Fe3O4 NPs followed by acid washing to remove MgO. These fct-FePt NPs show strong ferromagnetism with room temperature coercivity reaching 33 kOe. They serve as a robust electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduct...
A kind of Ti–Fe–Ni–C compound powder was prepared by a novel precursor pyrolysis process using ferro-titanium, carbonyl nickel powder and sucrose as raw materials. The powder had a very compact structure and was uniform in particle size. The TiC–Fe36Ni composite coatings were simultaneously in-situ synthesized by Reactive Detonation-gun Spraying (RDS) using these Ti-Fe-Ni-C compound powders. The coatings presented typical morphology of thermal spraying coatings with two different areas: one was the area of TiC distribution where the round fine TiC particles (from 300nm to 1μm) were dispersed in the Fe36Ni alloy matrix; the other was the area of TiC accumulation (from 2 to 4μm). The surface hardness of the composite coating reached about 94 ± 2(HR15N).
Chinese is an imperial language that has always loaned more than it borrowed. In the Max Planck Institute’s World Loanword Database, Mandarin Chinese has the lowest percentage of borrowings of all 41 languages studied, only 2 percent. (English, with one of the highest, has 42 percent.) In part because of the difficulty of translating alphabet-based languages into Chinese characters, it’s common to see what are called “calques”—nonphonetic literal translations like “re gou” for “hot dog” or “zhi zhu ren” for “Spiderman.” Despite (or because of) the vast appetite among the Chinese for learning English as a foreign language, Chinese ministers have recently cracked down on loanwords. And yet Chinese people still say “baibai” and “sorry”; “e-mail” is just a lot easier than “dianzi youjian,” the official substitute.
^ Nicholas D. Kristof (January 5, 2013). "Looking for a Jump-Start in China" (opinion). The New York Times. Retrieved January 6, 2013. Ling feared a scandal and reportedly began a cover-up. He went to the morgue, according to the account I got from one Chinese official, and looked at the body — and then coldly denied that it was his son. He continued to work in the following weeks as if nothing had happened.
Ling rose to become the Director of the General Office, an organ that handles day-to-day logistics and bureaucratic functions of the Communist Party, in 2007, when Hu was the party's General Secretary (i.e., paramount leader). He was initially seen as a promising candidate for promotion to the top leadership at the 18th Party Congress in 2012. However, his political fortunes abruptly took a turn when his 23-year-old son was killed while driving a Ferrari in 2012, an event that caused embarrassment for the party elite. Ling was then politically sidelined.
Interface translation: Tomislav Kuzmić (Croatian), Vasudevan Tirumurti, Fahim Razick (Tamil), Matti Tapanainen (Finnish), Ebru Bağlan (Turkish), Arsene Ionuț, Cristina Crisan (Romanian), Daiva Macijauskė (Lithuanian), Tetiana M. (Ukrainian), András Tuna (Hungarian), Jakob Lautrup Nysom (Danish), Andre Abdullin, Elena Zvaritch (Russian), Catherine Györvàry (French), Gab M., Klaus Röthig (Portuguese), Marcin Orzełek (Polish), Stefanija Madzoska, Daniel Matrakoski (Macedonian), Selina Lüdecke, P. H. Claus (German), Vangelis Katsoulas (Greek), Roberto Marchesi (Italian), Robin van der Vliet (Esperanto), Reno Rake (Indonesian), Nahuel Rodríguez (Spanish), Gao Pan (Chinese), Hoài Sang Lăng (Vietnamese)
It’s a common experience for English speakers abroad: suddenly recognizing a familiar word in a newspaper, or on a billboard, or in a fragment of conversation. Since World War II, English has become by far the leading exporter of “loanwords,” as they’re known, including nearly universal terms like “OK,” “Internet,” and “hamburger.” The extent to which a language loans words is a measure of its prestige, said Martin Haspelmath, a linguist at the Max Planck Institute. English, clearly, is now on top.
As a teenager in the 1980s, Wang would play several gigs a day with his grandfather’s band. Everywhere they performed, they were served tea and tobacco and treated as honored guests. But after the arrival of the new millennium, the popularity of suona music declined. The market for musicians shrank as newlyweds turned to new trends: Western rock bands, pop singers, folk operas. The suona became passé, even maudlin. “Once the suona sounded, people would think someone must have passed away,” Wang explains.
Fully-ordered face-centered tetragonal (fct) FePt nanoparticles (NPs) are synthesized by thermal annealing of the MgO-coated dumbbell-like FePt-Fe3O4 NPs followed by acid washing to remove MgO. These fct-FePt NPs show strong ferromagnetism with room temperature coercivity reaching 33 kOe. They serve as a robust electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduct...
It’s not hard to see why governments would seek to defend their languages. But some linguists think a staunch anti-English stance may be counterproductive. Truly endangered languages tend to be encroached on mostly by their dominant geographic neighbors, says Selma Sonntag, a political scientist at Humboldt State University who studies language purist movements: “The threat isn’t from English, it’s from whatever the official language is within their area.” Linguist David Crystal, author of “English as a Global Language,” has written about how Welsh-language purism may be furthering an elitism that prevents younger speakers from adopting the tongue. And it’s worth noting that English owes much of its vitality to its long history of borrowing from French, Latin, Arabic, and pretty much any other language it met. “Loanwords...do alter [a language’s] character—but is this a bad thing?” Crystal told me. “Imagine English without French or Latin loanwords. No Shakespeare, for a start.”
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